Francisco Pizarro was with Balboa on his expedition to Panamá in 1500, heard of rich Indian kingdoms to the south.  In 1531 he took 3 ships 183 men and seven horses to the Inca Empire.  Atahualpa was ruler.  By treachery Pizarro captured Atahualpa, who was at war with his brother Huáscar.  The Inca were told their emperor could go free if they filled a room 22 ft. by 17 ft., 9 ft. high with gold.  They DID!, and even filled larger adjacent rooms with silver.

But Pizarro did not release the emperor.  He executed Atahualpa on 29 Aug 1533.  Then, the Spanish destroyed the Inca people’s resistance, killing thousands.  Even Pizarro’s own people, the Spanish, hated him.  Pizarro’s brothers and others later killed him.  But the vast Inca territory, stretching from Colombia to Argentina, became Spanish.